Geography, Climate, and Weather of Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda

Nestled in the heart of the African continent, Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda is a crown jewel of biodiversity and scenic beauty. This guide provides a brief overview of the park’s geography, climate, and weather patterns, offering readers a window into its unique environmental features.

Volcanoes National Park, situated in the northwest corner of Rwanda, spans across 160 square kilometers. It is an integral part of the larger Virunga Conservation Area, which also stretches across the neighboring countries of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Dominated by a chain of dormant and active volcanoes, the park’s landscape is a mosaic of lush rainforest, alpine meadows, and volcanic peaks. The five primary volcanoes in the park are Karisimbi, Bisoke, Muhabura, Gahinga, and Sabyinyo, with Karisimbi being the highest at over 4,500 meters above sea level.

The park’s elevation, which ranges from about 2,400m to 4,507m, largely influences its climate. The lower montane forests are generally warmer, while the higher altitudes tend to be cooler and wetter. The park experiences two distinct rainy seasons: the long rains from mid-March to mid-May and the short rains from September to November. The driest period extends from June to August, making it an ideal time for trekking and wildlife viewing.

Being close to the equator, the temperature variations in Volcanoes National Park are less pronounced than one might expect at such altitudes. Daytime temperatures generally hover between 15°C to 25°C, while nighttime temperatures can drop to 10°C or lower in the higher altitudes. Weather can be unpredictable due to the mountainous terrain, and rain showers can occur without much warning, even during the dry season.

The Geography of Volcanoes National Park

Volcanoes National Park, also known as Parc National des Volcans (PNV) in French, is situated in the northwestern part of Rwanda, bordering the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. It covers a portion of the Virunga Mountains, which are shared among these three countries.

The park spans an area of approximately 160 square kilometers (62 square miles). Despite its relatively small size, the park’s mountainous terrain and dense forests make it a unique and vital habitat.

Volcanoes National Park is mainly characterized by its mountainous landscape. The park encompasses five of the eight volcanoes of the Virunga Mountains: Karisimbi, the highest at 4,507 meters, Bisoke with its beautiful crater lake, Sabinyo, Gahinga, and Muhabura

The rugged terrain includes a combination of bamboo forests, grassland areas, swamps, and heath.

The park’s altitude ranges from about 2,400 meters (7,900 feet) to the peak of Mount Karisimbi, which reaches up to 4,507 meters (14,787 feet). This vast range in altitude contributes to the park’s varied ecosystems.

Streams and rivers originating from these mountains crisscross the park, with some of them forming natural barriers or boundaries. The most notable is the Visoke River which flows from Mount Bisoke.

The park is home to diverse vegetation zones: At lower elevations, there are mostly bamboo forests. Moving higher, you’ll find Hagenia-Hypericum forests in the region between 2,500 to 3,500 meters. Above this, the vegetation shifts to more open grasslands, swamps, and heath, with Lobelia and Senecio plants dominating the landscape.

The Virunga Mountains, which Volcanoes National Park is a part of, are volcanic in nature. This makes the soil in the region particularly fertile. While most of the volcanoes here are dormant, the region as a whole is considered one of the most active volcanic areas in the world.

Beyond its physical geography, Volcanoes National Park holds immense ecological significance as one of the last refuges of the endangered mountain gorillas. The park, together with adjacent parks in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, hosts more than half of the world’s total mountain gorilla population.

To the west, Volcanoes National Park shares a boundary with the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Virunga National Park. To the north, it borders Mgahinga Gorilla National Park in Uganda. This contiguous stretch of national parks creates a larger protected ecosystem that is critical for wildlife conservation in the region.

The geography of Volcanoes National Park is characterized by its mountainous terrain, volcanic landscapes, diverse vegetation zones, and unique climatic conditions. All these factors play a crucial role in shaping the park’s rich biodiversity, making it a focal point for conservation and eco-tourism in Rwanda.

The Climate of Volcanoes National Park Rwanda

Volcanoes National Park, located in the northwestern part of Rwanda, is known for its lush, mountainous terrain that shapes its unique climate. Here is a detailed overview of the park’s climate:


Due to its high altitude, the park experiences relatively cooler temperatures than much of the rest of Rwanda.

Average daytime temperatures hover around 15°C (59°F) but can drop significantly in the evenings and mornings.

At higher altitudes, temperatures can get quite chilly, often dropping to 0°C (32°F) or lower, especially during the night.


Volcanoes National Park has two main rainy seasons:

Long rainy season: This extends from February to May. Rainfall during this period is more prolonged and can be quite heavy.

Short rainy season: This is from September to December. The rain during this time is less frequent and not as heavy as in the long rainy season.

The park receives an average annual rainfall of about 1,400 mm, with the higher altitudes getting more precipitation than the lower zones.

Dry Seasons:

While Volcanoes National Park receives rain throughout the year, there are two relatively drier periods:

June to September: This is the longer dry season and is considered the best time for gorilla trekking because of the less muddy and more passable trails.

December to February: This shorter dry spell is interrupted by occasional rains, but it generally remains a favorable time for tourism.


Given the frequent rainfall and dense vegetation, the park tends to have high humidity levels throughout the year. Morning mists and fogs are common, especially at higher elevations.

Factors Influencing Climate:

Altitude: With an altitude ranging from about 2,400 meters to over 4,500 meters, the park’s varying elevations significantly influence its climate, with higher zones being cooler and receiving more rainfall.

Equatorial Location: Despite being near the equator, the park’s altitude ensures that temperatures remain moderate rather than excessively hot.

Wind Patterns: Winds, especially from the Indian Ocean, bring moisture-laden air into the region, influencing the rainfall patterns.

Impact on Flora and Fauna:

The climate of Volcanoes National Park has a profound impact on its ecosystems:

The frequent rains nourish the dense forests, creating a lush habitat for the park’s renowned mountain gorillas and numerous other species.

The climatic conditions have resulted in distinct vegetation zones, from bamboo forests at lower elevations to alpine meadows in higher regions.

Recommendations for Visitors:

Given the park’s unpredictable weather and potential for sudden rainfall:

Tourists are advised to carry waterproof clothing, regardless of the season.

Layered clothing is recommended since temperatures can vary greatly between day and night.

Sturdy, water-resistant hiking boots are essential for trekking, especially considering the often-muddy trails.

The climate of Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda is shaped by its mountainous terrain and equatorial location, resulting in a cool, moist environment. This climate has crafted a biodiverse ecosystem, making the park a hotspot for conservation and ecotourism.

Overall, visitors to Volcanoes National Park are not only treated to its iconic mountain gorillas but also to a symphony of sights and sounds that are a testament to Rwanda’s rich ecological tapestry. Understanding the geography, climate, and weather of this magnificent park provides travelers with a more enriched and informed experience.